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4e Writing Skills

Гипермаркет знаний>>Английский язык>>Английский язык 11 класс>> 4e Writing Skills

Writing Skills


1  What does a good story consist of? Read the I theory box to check.

Stories describe a series of real or imaginary events that happened to either ourselves (first person narrative) or to other people (third person narrative). A good story should consist of:

a)    a beginning that sets the scene (who, where, when etc.) and attracts the attention of the reader.

b)    a main body describing the sequence of events.

c)    an ending that ends the story and refers to people's moods, reactions, feelings etc.

Stories are written using past tenses and are written in a personal, informal style. We can include detailed, chatty descriptions and direct speech to make them more lively.


2  Look at the picture and read the title of the story and the first paragraph. Where does the story take place? Who do you think is/are the main character(s)? What do you think might happen?
Listen, read and check.

3 a Read again and answer the questions in pairs.

1  Which paragraph sets the scene? How?
2  What is the climax event and what happened before it?
3   How does the story end?
4   How  does the writer begin/end the story in an interesting way?

b Find examples of different tenses in the story. Explain their usage.

An Amazing Rescue

>   On that windy autumn day, Greg Gibson, a member of the helicopter rescue unit with the US coastguard, had just started his shift. He was drinking a steaming hot cup of coffee when a distress call came in.

>  A freighter with a crew of 26 onboard had run aground in the Bering Sea. Two helicopters including Greg's and a coastguard boat started a rescue operation to save the crew of the sinking ship. The sea was rough and strong gusts of wind rocked the helicopters, but despite the terrible weather, the rescue mission was going like clockwork and 18 people were quickly airlifted to safety. The helicopters refuelled and went back to pick up the final crew members, but just as the second chopper was ready to return something awful happened.

>  A gigantic wave hit the ship and sent a huge wall of water up into the air. Greg and the other rescue workers watched in horror as it swallowed the helicopter and sent it crashing into the sea. Greg leapt into action instantly. "Quick! Let's get them out of here!", he yelled. Hovering 150 feet above the water, Greg lowered the rescue basket with such accuracy that he was able to collect the survivors from the stormy sea without wasting a single second.

>  After an exhausting few hours, everyone was safe and sound and recovering in hospital. "I'm glad that's over," Greg said and he and his crew were relieved that they were all back on dry land and their friends and co-workers were alive. A few months later, Greg was awarded a gold medal in recognition of his skilful and brave performance under pressure.

4  a  Read the theory box, then find the words in the model which show the sequence of events in the story. Suggest alternatives.

 To describe the events in a | story in chronological order, j use a variety of linking/sequence ! words such as: first/at first, then/next, after/before, finally/in  the end/eventually, within     seconds/immediately, no sooner...  than/hardly :.. when, just as... ,  while, by the time ... etc.    

b List the events below in the order they happened, then use them to tell your partner a summary of the story. Include appropriate sequence words.

a   Greg rescued the survivors one at a time.
b   A distress call came in.
c    The helicopters refuelled and returned.
d    A huge wave hit the ship.
e    The rescue mission was going well.
f     The rescue operation started.
g     Greg started work.
h     The helicopter crashed into the sea.
i       Greg was awarded a medal.
j      The survivors went to hospital.

C Read the story on p. 72 again. Find examples of

•    detailed chatty descriptions
•    direct speech

Narrative techniques

5   Read the theory box, then find examples of some of the »J different narrative techniques used in the story in Ex. 2.

There are different narrative techniques that you can use to liven up your story. These include:

• using a variety of more complex adjectives and adverbs The terrified man started to shake uncontrollably.

• avoiding simple verbs e.g. ate, walked, said, looked. Try to use more descriptive, complex verbs instead e.g.exclaimed, threatened, promised, shouted, stared, dashed, gobbled.

• using your senses (sight, smell, touch, sound, taste) The leaves crackled under my feet as I walked.

• using alliteration, or the repetition of a sound at the beginning or ending of words in a sentence He finally got home, safe and sound at last.

• using metaphors/similes to make a comparison between two things He was as thin as a rake (simile), she has a heart of stone (metaphor).

• using present or past participles to make longer, more sophisticated sentences Shaking with cold, he wrapped a blanket around himself; Terrified, she ran away as fast as she could.

• Hyperbole after what seemed like an eternity..., he was so hungry he could eat a horse.

• use phrases which illustrate the characters' feelings the little girl giggled with delight (shows happiness).


6 a  Find the adjectives that have been used to describe the V nouns below in the story. Suggest alternatives.

•    coffee • weather • wave • sea • rescue
•    performance

b Complete the sentences with the correct adverb from the box below.

•    angrily • reassuringly • anxiously • unbelievably
•    nervously • eagerly • happily

1    She hurried ...........to the bus stop, worried that the bus would have left.
2    George shouted ........... at the students, his face turning red.
3    Sally walked..........onto the stage, trying to remember her lines.
4    Realising how nervous I was, the doctor smiled...........at me.
5    Jane nodded...........when I suggested going to the beach.
6    He was    ................ tired at the end of his long day.
7    The girls laughed and joked..............on their way home.


7   Read the paragraph and find the words/phrases # related to the senses. Which senses do they describe?

I felt the cold, stony ground under me as I lay motionless waiting for help to arrive. My heart was thumping wildly and my head was throbbing with pain. Suddenly, an ambulance screeched around the corner, lights flashing and siren wailing. The last thing I remember before I lost consciousness was a strange ringing sound in my ears and the salty taste of blood filling my mouth...


8  a  Write the verbs in the correct space in the table, then try to add some more of your own.


b Complete the sentences with a suitable verb from Ex. 8a. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.

1    "If you come any closer, I'll kill you!", he ..........    
2    She............    nervously as Matt took her hand.
3    Suddenly, the man..........my bag and ran.
4    She............    the last of her breakfast as fast as she could.
5    "I said be quiet!", the teacher    ...............
6    John ................. cheerfully as he skied down the mountain.
7    The strange woman was ........... at me from behind a tree.
8    We............    across the dark field, trying not to fall over in the dark.
9    "Shh! Don't make a sound!", John.................
10     I..........to the shop, determined to get there before it closed.
C Complete the joke with one of the verbs in Ex. 8a.


9   Improve the extract below by replacing the / words in bold with more vivid/descriptive words. Use a dictionary and the ideas in Exs. 6 & 7 to help you. Compare with a partner.

"Be careful!" my mum said happily as I left on that nice Friday morning, just like she always did. I walked fast towards the bus stop, happy about the nice day ahead. I had just arrived at the busy bus stop, when suddenly I saw a motorbike coming towards me! There was a loud noise and I went up into the air before falling down onto the ground...


10   Match the words in columns A and B, then use the alliterative phrases to complete the sentences (1-6).


1    Greg.........when he heard the good news.
2    ............to help yourself to a sandwich, Ann.
3    Why don't you invite Tim to the picnic, too. ...........!
4    I couldn't believe they had cheated me. "Well, you.............!", my mum said.
5    You'll feel as............in a few days.
6    The delicious dinner Mike cooked was    ....................


11  Fill in: a dog, a sheet, day, a lark, a flash, a I sieve.

1    Matt was as happy as..........as he left school that day.
2    Jo looked as white as..........."Are you OK?", I asked.
3    "You've got a memory like............     ," Emily joked.
4    As quick as ........, I dashed across the road.
5    I was as sick as.............    the whole of the next day.
6    There was my missing ring, as plain as................!


12  Read the sentences and match the im metaphors in bold with their meanings:


1    I lost my grandmother's ring and I was heartbroken.
2    Sally thundered angrily into the room.
3    "Why the long face?", I asked.
4    Can you throw some light on the problem?
5    Suddenly, a letter on the table caught my eye.
6    I was frozen with fear.


13  Join the sentences using present or past J participles, as in the example.

1    They were huddled around the fire. They finally felt warm again.

> Huddled around the fire, they finally felt warm again.

2    He was gasping for breath. He tried to tell Anna what had happened.
3    She was annoyed. She got up and left the room.
4    She was exhausted. She sank down onto the forest floor.
5    We were shivering with cold. We pulled our coats tighter around us.
6    She glanced down at her watch. She realised she was going to be late.
7    I was worried. I decided to try calling Sylvia one more time.


14   Replace the words in bold with the f words/phrases below to make sentences using hyperbole.

•    ages • about to burst • snap my head off
•    he was talking to the wall • a ton
•    my heart was in my mouth

1    This book weighs a lot.
2    I haven't seen Richard for a long time.
3    You don't have to speak so angrily to me.
4    He felt like no one was listening.
5    I've eaten so much I'm feeling very full.
6    I was very afraid as I opened the door.

15  Rewrite the sentences using the words in J brackets to express feelings, as in the example.

1 He felt happy as he wandered along the beach. (sigh/content)

> He sighed contentedly as he wandered along the beach.

2  Jim was surprised when they told him the news. (mouth/drop open)

3  Jane felt sad as she waved goodbye to James. (haert/sink)

4  Jim was fristrated when he saw that it was raining yet again. (sigh/heavily)

5  I was angry as Anna continued to lie to me.

6  She was afraid as the man continued to yell at her. (shake/uncontrollably)

Beginnings / Endings

Ways to start a story

•    creating atmosphere by describing the weather, people, setting the scene
•    using direct speech
•    expressing someone's feelings or mood

Ways of ending a story

•    using direct speech
•    asking a rhetorical question, that is a question that needs no answer
•    describing others/your feelings, mood
•    creating suspense/mystery

16  a  Read the possible beginnings and endings of a story entitled 'Lost in a Blizzard'. Which (A or B) are the most interesting? Why? Which techniques do they use?

1 Beginnings

A Do you know, when you just have a feeling deep down inside that you have made a terrible mistake? Well, that day, high up in the mountains, I couldn't help feeling anxious that we had made a terrible mistake leaving the main mountain path. "Are you sure you know the way back?", I shouted to Tom, uneasily, trying to be heard above the howling wind.

B I thought it was a bad idea that we had left the main mountain path. I asked Tom if he knew the way back, but I didn't know if he had heard me.

2 Endings

A  In the end, I was lifted into the rescue helicopter. The rescue workers still hadn't found Tom. I didn't know if I would ever see him again.

B  As I was lifted into the rescue helicopter, my eyes filled with tears as I thought about Tom still out there, shivering with cold and totally alone. Would I ever be able to forgive myself for leaving Tom? Would I ever see him again?

b Write an interesting beginning and ending for a story entitled 'Disaster at Sea!' Exchange with a partner and evaluate each other's work.

Discuss and write

17 a  Work in pairs. Read the rubrics, underline the key words, and answer the questions.

1  Who will read each story?
2  What will each story be about?
3  Who could the main characters be?
4  How many paragraphs will you write and what will you write in each?

A  Your teacher has asked you to write a story called 'Trapped!' Write your story (120-180 words).

B  You have decided to enter a short story competition in a magazine. The story must end with the sentence: 'What a miraculous escape!' Write your entry for the competition (120-180 words).

b Choose one of the rubrics and write your story. Follow the steps below.

Steps for writing stories


•    when & where the story takes place
•    who the main characters are & what they are like
•    your basic plotline (make a list of the main events in the order they happen)
•    what your climax event will be
•    what you will include in each paragraph
•    how the characters feel in the end


•    an interesting beginning that sets the scene and attracts the attention of the reader
•    a main body that describes the development of your story
•    an ending that will leave a lasting impression on your reader

Check that

•    your story has a clear beginning, main body and ending
•    you have used appropriate tenses throughout
•    you have included appropriate linking/sequencing words
•    you have used language that is vivid and descriptive i.e. more complex
•    you have made use of some narrative techniques such as similes, metaphors, alliteration etc
•    you have included some direct speech to liven up your story
•    your spelling, punctuation & grammar are correct

Английский язык. 11 класс : учеб. для общеобразоват. учреждений / [О.В. Афанасьева, Дж.Дули, И.В. Михеева и др.]. - 2-е изд., доп. и перераб. - М.: Express Publishing : Просвещение, 2009. - 244 с. : ил. - (Английский в фокусе).

Английский язык для 11 класса, учебники и книги по английскому языку скачать, библиотека онлайн

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