Гипермаркет знаний>>Английский язык>>Английский язык 8 класс>> A surprise excursion. Grammar Придаточные определительные предложения
1 Misha and his class are in London. On the first day they have some surprise excursions. Look at the pictures and say: Which museums are the friends going to visit? Explain your answers.
1. This princess, who did her best to help the poor and the sick, died in 1997.
2. Books by this playwright, who lived in the 16th century, are still very popular.
3. This is a politician with his famous pipe, which he smoked all the time.
4. This musician, who comes from Liverpool, is famous all over the world.
5. That's the man who was friends with John Lennon.
6. That's the politician who was one of the best British prime ministers.
7. That's the woman whom everybody loved.
3 Какие придаточные предложения в упр. 2 содержат необходимую информацию? Какие придаточные предложения содержат дополнительную информацию?
Придаточные определительные предложения
Придаточные определительные предложения служат определением по отношению к существительному главного предложения.
Если придаточное предложение относится к одушевленному предмету, то оно присоединяется к главному предложению с помощью союзных слов who, whom, that, whose.
Если придаточное предложение относится к неодушевленному предмету, то оно присоединяется к главному предложению с помощью союзных слов which, that, whose.
Придаточные определительные предложения также присоединяются к главному с помощью союзных слов when и where.
I'll never forget the cafe where we met. — Я никогда не забуду кафе, в котором мы встретились.
She couldn't remember the day when she received that letter. — Она не могла вспомнить день, когда она получила то письмо.
Придаточные определительные предложения бывают двух типов — лимитирующие и описательные.
Лимитирующие описывают признаки, присущие только данному лицу или предмету и отличающие его от всех лиц или предметов того же класса, или описывают признаки, присущие данному классу лиц или предметов. Лимитирующие придаточные предложения нельзя опустить без ущерба для понимания общего смысла. В предложениях данного типа главное предложение не отделяется от придаточного запятой.
The people who live in the village get up early. — Люди, которые живут в деревне, встают рано.
The film which I saw yesterday was interesting. — Фильм, который я смотрел вчера, был интересный.
В лимитирующих придаточных предложениях who и which можно заменить союзным словом that.
I know the woman who speaks Chinese. — I know the woman that speaks Chinese.
The people who live in the village get up early. — The people that live in the village get up early.
Если лимитирующиепредложения служат определением к дополнению главного предложения, то союзные слова можно не употреблять.
Yesterday I met a woman (who) we were talking about. — Вчера я встретил женщину, о которой Mbt говорили.
При переводе на русский язык союзное слово необходимо.Описательные предложения содержат дополнительную информацию об описываемом лице или предмете. Без такой информации можно обойтись. Главное предложение отделяется от придаточного запятой.
She told те about Nick, whom she liked a lot. — Она рассказала мне о Нике, который ей очень нравился.
В описательных придаточных предложениях употребляются who, which и не употребляется that.
His sister, who was very beautiful, married Tom Hopkins. — Его сестра, которая была очень красива, вышла замуж за Тома Хопкинса.
4 Определите тип придаточного предложения и поставьте запятые там, где это требуется. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1 The building that was next to the school fell down.
2 Jane whose father was also a doctor works at the hospital.
3 I'm going to the town where I spent the best years of my life.
4 In the room I spotted a boy whose father helped me last year.
5 There were a lot of flowers in the tree her grandfather planted.
6 The present that he brought was the best.
7 The girl they are talking about is Mark's sister.
8 His brother whom I have known for many years phoned me yesterday.
5 Fill in the gaps. Use where, who, which, whose, that, when. Put in commas where necessary.
1 Most of the people ... come to this theatre are from England.
2 My brother ... picture you have seen in the room is a very nice guy.
3 His father who was very rich sent him to Eton.
4 Kate and John never forgot the place ... they met.
5 I don't read books ... have a happy ending.
6 It was a time ... men went to war and women waited for them.
6 Выберите нужное союзное слово.
1 My friend, who / which is very talented, is arriving today.
2 She's bought the book who / that she was looking for.
3 I like the house who / where they live.
4 She showed me the ring whose / which was a family treasure.
5 I don't know the man which / who is sitting next to me.
For your information
The National Portrait Gallery opened in 1856. It contains over 8,000 original portraits and photographs. The gallery is "about history, not about art", which means that a picture gets into the gallery if it's a portrait of a famous British person. The artist's name and the quality of the picture aren't very important.
8 Listen to the words and expressions and repeat them after the speaker.
a nurse — медсестра
motion — движение
universal gravitation — всемирное тяготение
a reflecting telescope — зеркальный
телескоп calculus — дифференциальное и интегральное исчисления
an orphan -сиpoтa
a tramp - бpoдягa
a buttеrflу - 6aбoчкa
law - зaкон
a bоwlеr hat - шляпa-котелок
9 Here are some more portraits from the National Portrait Gallery (p. 40-42).
Look through the biographies and match the person with the job.
Match the person with the words from the previous exercise.
1. Isaac Newton a) a comic actor
2. Florence Nightingale b) a scientist
3. Charlie Chaplin c) a nurse
10 Read the texts. Найдите и подчеркните придаточные предложения. Определите, является ли информация в этих придаточных предложениях дополнительной или необходимой?
Isaac Newton was one of the most important scientists who ever lived.
He was born on 25 December, 1642, in Woolsthorpe . His father died before Newton was born and his mother remarried. Newton went to live with his grandmother. He went to a grammar school, where he wasn't a very good pupil. Luckily one of the teachers spotted that he had a bright mind and recommended that he go to university. So Newton went to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was going to study law.
One day he went to a fair and bought a book on mathematics. Newton hadn't read any books on mathematics and physics before and got very interested in these subjects. Soon he became one of the best students in the university. He spent most of his life in Cambridge.
Listen to the words ond expressions and repeat them after the speaker.
Newton became a world-famous physicist, mathematician, and natural philosopher. He took facts and mathematical theories and explained them. He formulated laws of universal gravitation and motion that explain how objects move on the Earth and in the sky. He made discoveries in optics and built the first reflecting telescope. He invented an area of mathematics called calculus and wrote a lot of books.
Florence Nightingale got her name from the city of Florence. At that time women didn't work. They served tea and gave parties. Florence didn't like this lifestyle. She was interested in books and medicine and wanted to go to university. At first her family was against it, but after many emotional battles her father agreed. She got a good education in Germany and started to work in a hospital when she came back to England.
March 1854 brought the start of the Crimean War when Britain, France and Turkey declared war on Russia. Florence Nightingale left England and became a nursing administrator of the English General Hospitals in Turkey. She took 38 other nurses with her. Together they went to battlefields and organized hospitals. The wounded soldiers called her an angel because at night she went from one bed to another with a lamp.
Florence Nightingale has stayed in history as "the Lady with the Lamp", the first professional nurse who saved thousands of lives.
11 Here is more information from the biographies. Find the best place for each sentence and complete the biographies.
Model: He was born on 25 December, 1642, in Woolsthorpe, which is in Lincolnshire.
...which is in Lincolnshire...
... where he made his most
... where she was born in 1820...
... who was clever and ambitious...
... who really loved his daughter...
... where she was a brilliant student.
... which she held in her hand...
A Read Charlie Chaplin's biography and find the answers to the questions.
1. Which country was he born in?
2. Which country made him famous?
3. What was his childhood like?
4. Did he have any brothers or sisters?
5. When did he start to work?
6. What is he famous for?
Charles Spencer Chaplin didn't have a very happy childhood. He was born in London, England, on 16 April 1889. When his father left the family, Chaplin's mother didn't work, and her two sons were often hungry. When their mother got ill, Chaplin and his brother went to the workhouse, which was the place for orphans. Life there was very hard, but Chaplin didn't give up. He started his career as an actor when he was nine. When he was twenty-one, he joined a travellin music-hall company. Soon after he went to America and became the famou film star, Charlie Chaplin. The actor died in 1977 but we still remember hi "Little Tramp", a funny little man in baggy (мешковатый) trousers and small bowler hat.
В Read the text again and find the best place for this information.
• ... who brought smiles to the faces of millions of people...
• ... whose health was getting worse...
С Think about famous Russian people. Imagine there is a Russian National
Portrait gallery. Whose portraits should be there? Why? Write 5-7 sentences about any of the people you have chosen.
D Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The song we were listening to was a very good one.
2. The tourists they were waiting for didn't come.
3. Unfortunately, he didn't get the present he had hoped for.
4. The report he had to make was very important.
E Make one sentence from two. Use which, that, whose, whom.
1. I bought a dress. My friend advised me to buy it.
2. We went to the party. It was very interesting.
3. That is the village. We used to go there every summer.
4. This is Mary Jones. I've got a letter from her.
5. I was looking for a key. I've found it now.
6. This is the house. They bought it last year.
7. This is the actor. I like him very much.
К. И. Кауфман, М. Ю. Кауфман Английский язык: Счастливый английский.ру / Happy English.ru: Учебник англ. яз. для 8 кл. общеобраз. учрежд.— Обнинск: Титул, 2008.— 288 с: ил.
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