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George Washington and Thomas Jefferson

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George Washington and Thomas Jefferson

1 Listen to the words and expressions and repeat them after the speaker.
 
to make smb pay taxes — заставлять кого-либо платить налоги
to afford to do smth — позволять себе делать что-либо
to boycott — бойкотировать "No taxation without representation" — "Нет налогам без представительства"
deadline — крайний срок
to climb smth — взбираться куда-либо
to empty smth — высыпать что-либо
Bostonians — жители Бостона
Boston Tea Party — "Бостонское чаепитие"
to separate — отделяться
to retire — уходить на пенсию
an estate — поместье
Mount Vernon — Маунт-Вернон
to break out — разразиться
to take part in smth — участвовать в чем-либо
badly trained — плохо обученный
experienced — опытный
an effort — усилие
in vain — напрасно
although — хотя
authority — авторитет
to ignore smb / smth — игнорировать кого-либо / что-либо
to preside — председательствовать
to work out — разрабатывать
completely — совершенно
to set up smth — основывать что-либо

2 Emily's friends asked her mother to tell them everything she knows about George Washington. Read the text and do the task of Ex. 3.

Washington

Washington

George Washington was the first President of the USA.
He was born on 22 February 1732 into the family of a rich Virginia landowner. In his early twenties, Washington took part in the war which the British Empire was fighting against France for the new territories in America. This was later called the French and Indian War. Washington fought bravely, but he didn't stay in the British army. He was very unhappy about how badly the American officers were being treated by the British generals.
In 1765 the British government decided to make the Americans pay taxes, but they forgot about the independent spirit of the colonists, whose ancestors had travelled across the ocean to find liberty and independence. Although the tax wasn't high and the colonists could afford to pay it easily, they were angry when they heard about the new law. The colonies were not even represented in the British Parliament, so nobody asked their opinion about the new taxes. The Americans then decided to boycott British goods. "No taxation without representation" were the words repeated by all the Americans.
So a war between Great Britain and its American colonies was about to start, but nobody could ever imagine that it would all begin over tea.
It happened in 1773 when British ships loaded with tea and guarded by warships came into Boston Harbour. The tea had to be unloaded and the tax on it had to be paid by midnight on December 16,1773. The Bostonians
 
American
 
decided that they were not going to accept the tea and were not going to pay the tax on it. At night, just before the deadline, the colonists dressed as Indians quietly climbed up into the ships. They opened the boxes of tea and emptied them all into the harbour. They called this the Boston Tea Party, and it became the first in a line of events that led America to separate finally from the British Empire.
At that time Washington, who had retired from the army, was enjoying a peaceful life as a landowner on his family's estate near Mount Vernon. But this peaceful life didn't last long because the Revolutionary War with Great Britain broke out soon after the Boston Tea Party. As a leader of Virginia's opposition to British colonial policies, Washington took an active part in the First and the Second Continental Congresses in 1774 and 1775-1776. At that time the Congress was a kind of American government which consisted of delegates from all of the thirteen colonies. The Second Congress chose Washington as head of the colonists' army. Washington found himself with a force of 14,000 badly trained men, who had no discipline and quickly lost their morale when things went wrong. But their leader didn't lose hope; he decided to train his army and took advice from more experienced generals. His efforts were not in vain; in 1781 America won a six-year-long war and in 1783 peace with Great Britain was signed.

война

Although the victory made George Washington a national hero, he dreamed about getting back to his farm in Mount Vernon. However, his authority was badly needed again when the young country was faced with new problems after the war. The independent states disagreed on many questions, and wanted to have their own laws and make their own decisions. The Congress was so weak that it was ignored both at home and abroad. It was clear that America needed a stronger central government.
In 1787 Congress asked each state to send delegates to a "constitutional convention" to discuss the situation. Washington presided over the convention, and the delegates worked out a completely new system of government. They called this system the Constitution of the United States. In 1789 when it came to choosing the head of state, everybody voted for Washington.
As the first President, Washington had to make a lot of important decisions for the first time. Washington set up a lot of political institutions, decided on where to have the American capital, which was given his name, and ordered the building of the White House, the home of all American presidents ever since. For all the great things that he did Americans call him "the Father of our Country".

вашингтон

3 Correct the mistakes in Washington's biography.


1.    22 February 1732 — Washington was born into a very poor family.
2.    1765 — The British government decided to make the Americans pay taxes.
3.    1773 — Washington took part in the Boston Tea Party.
4.    1774 — Washington represented the state of Virginia in the First Continental Congress.
5.    1774 — Washington was chosen to be the head of the British army.
6.    1775-1776 — Washington lead a peaceful life on his estate.
7.    1781 — America won the war against Spain.
8.    1983 — Peace with Great Britain was signed.
9.    1787 — Washington took part in a "constitutional convention".
10. 1789 — Washington was elected President of the USA.

4 Listen to the words and repeat them after the speaker.


Thomas Jefferson [.tnmss 'cfeefesan] — Томас Джефферсон
court 28-10-14.jpg — суд
an alliance [s'laians] — союз
a figure 28-10-15.jpgцифра
to lock up — запирать
a study — кабинет

5 Read the text and be ready to answer the questions of Ex. 6.


Jefferson

Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson was born in Virginia, on 13 April 1743. His father, Peter Jefferson, and his mother, Jane Randolph, both came from the most respected Virginian families. Young Thomas had a very good education, and he read law in the College of William and Mary. He was 25 when he was elected to the House of Burgesses, the first elected legislative assembly in the New World. Jefferson was greatly respected for his writing talent, though he was never a good speaker. At the same time Jefferson started a successful career as a professional lawyer and practised until 1774, when the courts were closed by the American Revolution.

But as you may know this was not the end of his political career; much later Thomas Jefferson was to become the third President of the USA. How did it happen? Let me tell you. From the beginning of the American War with the mother country, Jefferson stood with the most radical of the patriots. In 1775 he was chosen as a delegate from Virginia to the Second Continental Congress.

In 1776 the Congress decided that no further alliance with Great Britain was possible, and America had to become an independent country. Thomas Jefferson was chosen to write the official document which would inform the British king and the world about the decision of the Congress. Those of you who are good with figures have probably already realized that at that time Jefferson was only thirty-three years old.

Jefferson locked himself up in his study and started to write. He was always a good writer and soon the draft of the document was ready. It took him only 17 days. In this document Jefferson expressed the ideas of freedom which were very dear to him. He wrote that all men have the same rights. Regardless of birth, wealth, or status everybody had the right to life, freedom and happiness. He also thought that the government is the servant, not the master, of human beings and that governments were created by people in order to protect their rights.

Jefferson

The Congress read Jefferson's document and, after some changes were made, it was signed by all the delegates from the thirteen colonies on July 4, 1776. The document was called the Declaration of Independence. That's how it started...

Jefferson


"We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certainrights; that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed."

The Declaration of Independence became one of the most important documents for America because it declared American independence from Great Britain and actually started its history as a nation. In memory of this every year Americans celebrate July 4 as Independence Day.

The Declaration made Jefferson extremely popular, but he wanted to spend more time with his family and try to do more for his own state, so he left Congress and returned to Virginia, where three years later he was chosen as governor. All in all, Jefferson served the state of Virginia and his country for more than forty years. He was a US minister to France, Secretary of State under George Washington, Vice-President, and then President of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Jefferson doubled the size of his country when he bought the huge territory of Louisiana from France.

Jefferson
 
The inscription on Jefferson's tombstone, which he wrote himself, doesn't say anything about all of this. It reads that Thomas Jefferson was "author of the Declaration of American Independence, author of the State of Virginia for religious freedom, and Father of the University of Virginia" and, as Jefferson wanted it, "not a word more."
 
6 Answer the questions.

1.    What is the Declaration of Independence?
2.    How long did it take Jefferson to write it?
3.    When was the Declaration of Independence signed?
4.    What was Washington doing when the Declaration of Independence was signed?
5.    What posts did Jefferson occupy during his lifetime?
6.    What was Jefferson himself proud of?


7 Match Jefferson's ideas with the exact words from the Declaration of Independence.

•    All men have the same rights.
•    Governments are created by people in order to protect their rights.
•    Regardless of birth, wealth, or status everybody has the right for life, freedom and happiness.
•    The government is the servant, not the master, of human beings.

8 Read through the texts about Jefferson and Washington and find the paragraphs which describe the same events.

9 Read what the friends are talking about in the conversation and answer the questions.


1.    Are the friends going to look for informationabout Abraham Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt?
2.    Where do the friends hope to find the treasure?
3.    What did the friends decide to do?
4.    Who was against the plan? Why?


information

Misha:  That's a lot of information. And so far we've only learnt about Washington and Jefferson.
Emily:   I don't think that Robin MacWizard knew very much about them himself.
Mark:    I agree with you. We must find a simpler answer.
Emily:   What did you say? Of course! How could I be so stupid? There's a very simple answer. All the presidents lived in Washington in their official residence, which is called the White House.
Misha:   You're right! I heard that every American president has lived there. We must go to Washington.
Mark:     I'm not so sure about that. In his note Robin only wrote about four presidents, not about ALL of them.
Rob:      Don't be such a bore, Mark. We have to check every idea.
Emily:    And look. Now the meaning of the picture is clear: there is a big letter "W" written here. It means Washington or the White House. I'm sure we're on the right track.
Misha:    Yes, but Washington isn't just round the corner.
Emily:     It's not so far away. If Grandma Olga agrees to take us by car, we should be there in less than six hours. I'll go and talk to her and you pack your things, guys. We should hurry up.

Homework

A Choose the correct answer.


1.    The Boston Tea Party is
a)    a party that the British king organised for his American friends.
b)    a welcome party that the Bostonians organised for some important British politicians,
c) the night when the Bostonians threw boxes of tea in the water as protest against British taxes.

2.    The War of Independence was the war between
a) the Americans and Indians,
b) the Americans and Great Britain.
c)    the Americans and Great Britain on one side and France on the other.

3.    The reason for the war was that
a) the Americans wanted to get new territories,
b) the Americans didn't want to pay taxes,
c) the black slaves in America wanted freedom.

4.    The Constitution is
a)    the document which made America an independent country.
b)    the document which describes how the American government should function,
c) the name of a new American capital.

5.    The Declaration of Independence is
a)    the document which made America a democratic country.
b)    the document which made George Washington the President of the USA.
c) the document in which the USA declared their independence from Great Britain.

В Read the text about Thomas Jefferson again and write his short biography. Use extra information sources if you want to.

С Write a short biography of any famous Russian politician or tsar. Use any source of information that is available to you.

словарь





К. И. Кауфман, М. Ю. Кауфман Английский язык: Счастливый английский.ру / Happy English.ru: Учебник англ. яз. для 9 кл. общеобраз. учрежд.— Обнинск: Титул, 2008.— 288 с: ил.


Английский язык скачать, задача школьнику 9 класса, материалы по английскому языку для 9 класса онлайн


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