Гипермаркет знаний>>Английский язык>>Английский язык 8 класс>> What is the Index Liborum Prohibitorum? Grammar Страдательный залог
Особенности употребления страдательного залога
В страдательной конструкции с предложным дополнением предлог сохраняет свое место после глагола. Например:
They sent for the doctor. — Они послали за доктором. (Active voice)
The doctor was sent for. — За доктором послали. (Passive voice)
Наиболее употребительные глаголы с предлогами:
to send for smb / smth — посылать за кем-то, чем-то
to object to smb / smth — возражать кому-то, чему-то
to insist on smth — настаивать на чем-то
to refer to smb / smth — ссылаться на кого-то, что-то
to laugh at smb / smth — смеяться над кем-то, чем-то
to listen to smb / smth — слушать кого-то, что-то
to wait for smb / smth — ждать кого-то, что-то
They often refer to this writer. He is very famous. — This writer is often referred to.
Friends are laughing at Peter. He has made the same mistake again. — Peter is being laughed at.
Everybody is waiting for you! Don't be late again! — You are being waited for
Mary insisted on this plan. I couldn't disagree with her.— This plan was insisted on.
1 Rewrite the sentenсes. Use the passive.
Model: Somebody lookеd aftеr hеr. - Shе wаs looked аftеr.
1. Sоmеbody laughеd at my littlе sistеr.
2. Wе are waiting for the librarian.
3. Sсiеntists oftеn rеfеr to this book.
4. Еverybody was listеning to the song.
5. They havе just sent for thе doсtor.
6. They lookеd for that book last wеek.
2 Answer the questions.
1. Who was your favourite book written by?
2. Whо is thе biggеst street in your villagе / town l citу namеd aftеr?
3. Why was this story rеfеrred to?
4. Will you bе listеnеd to if you sing a song?
5. Havе you еvеr bееn laughеd at?
3 Match the name of a famous person with his discovery. Use the verbs: to find out, to discover.
a) the Earth goes round the sun
b) the sea route to India
c) the world is round
Whose name is the odd one out? Why?
4 Listen to the Great Discoveries text and check your ideas.
5 Read the text and answer the questions.
1. When did the Inquisition start?
2. What was it for?
3. What is heresy?
4. What is the Index Liborum Prohibitorum?
5. Who was Nicolas Copernicus?
6. What was the idea that the Catholic Church didn't like?
When we think about medieval Europe, one of the first things that we remember is the Inquisition. The Inquisition was started in 1184 by the Pope in Rome to fight against heretics, people who didn't agree with the Church. The Inquisition had the power of life and death over any Catholic and people were afraid of it, but at the end of the fifteenth century things started to change. It was the century of great discoveries.
In 1492 Columbus discovered America. In 1497 Vasco da Gama opened up a sea route to India. In 1500 Brazil was discovered, and in 1522 Magellan's expedition went round the world for the first time.
These discoveries put the Church in a difficult position. For centuries it had been telling people: "The world is flat." But the explorers showed that it wasn't true. It became clear to everybody that the Earth was round.
Worse than that, at the beginning of the 16th century a young Polish astronomer, Copernicus,
came up with a new idea. "The Earth is not the centre of the universe. It revolves around the sun, together with some other planets."
The Catholic Church had to find a way to hide this knowledge from ordinary people. In 1559 it published the Index Liborum Prohibitorum ['indeks 'liborum 'prt>hibitnmm], a list of books that were banned for Catholics. People who read these books were punished by the Inquisition. Any books from the list were burned.
Nowadays the Index Liborum Prohibitorum is open to the public. Think of any famous scientist, writer or philosopher — you'll find his name and works on the list.
6 Translate the sentences into English. Use passive constructions.
1. Людям показали, что Земля круглая.
2. Многие книги были запрещены.
3. Людям не говорили правду.
4. Католиков наказывали, если они читали запрещенные книги.
5. Книги Коперника сжигали.
7 Read the text and mark the sentences below true or false.
On 10 May 1933 students from the Wilhelm Humboldt University in Berlin took books from their university library and burned them. The burning lasted for hours, and thousands of books were thrown into the fire. The students were not punished or expelled from the university for this. Over the next few days a lot of other German universities followed their example. The writers who Germany didn't need anymore were
The book burning was a part of Nazi propaganda. They declared thr Germany should burn anything which was not German and destroyed tfc. German spirit and culture.
A century earlier a famous German poet, Heinrich Heine, had said: "Where they burn books, they will soon burn people." By 1933 his words had been forgotten, but seven years later millions of people were burned in concentration camps.
A new generation of Germans do not want to make the same mistakes again. Every year on 10 May they celebrate Book Day. They know that they mustn't forget.
1. Students burned books because they were too difficult and boring.
2. Students who burned the books were punished.
3. Only one German university burned books.
4. The Nazis didn't burn books that were written by German writers.
5. Nowadays Germany is a democratic country.
6. The Germans want to forget their past.
8 What is the main idea of the text? Look through the text and use one of the sentences as a title. Explain your choice.
A Express the same idea using passive constructions.
1. He'll read an interesting story to them.
2. Mother promised her a trip to Moscow.
3. They'll send a lot of letters to Misha.
4. We always buy bread for her.
5. They sold these trainers very cheaply.
6. They always insist on this idea, but we don't agree with it.
В Find the mistakes and correct them. There are sentences without mistakes.
1. Us was shown the house yesterday.
2. They'll be sent a fax tomorrow.
3. They were recommended a good teacher.
4. Me has already been told this story.
5. The child is read books every day.
6. Tourists were offered cold drinks.
7. Next month she is paid 3,000 roubles.
С Put in the missing prepositions and translate the sentences into Russian.
1 He was being laughed ... when I came.
2 The doctor has already been sent... .
3 The child will be looked ... by my sister.
4 They were waited ... very long yesterday.
5 This book is often referred ... .
6 His arrival was insisted ....
7 This man is always relied ....
8 His plans were objected ....
D Translate the sentences into English.
1. На эту статью обычно ссылаются.
2. Над ним часто смеются.
3. За бабушкой будет ухаживать его сестра.
4. Слушали его рассказ, когда я вошел.
5. Против его планов всегда возражают.
6. Ее ждали, когда она позвонила.
К. И. Кауфман, М. Ю. Кауфман Английский язык: Счастливый английский.ру / Happy English.ru: Учебник англ. яз. для 8 кл. общеобраз. учрежд.— Обнинск: Титул, 2008.— 288 с: ил.
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