3e Writing Skills

Гипермаркет знаний>>Английский язык>>Английский язык 11 класс>> 3e Writing Skills

Writing Skills

Opinion essays

1 a Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the questions (1-3).

A teen magazine is asking for opinions on the following statement: All teenagers should have a part-time job. Write an article for the magazine, stating your opinion and giving reasons/examples to support your views. (120-180 words)

1    Who is going to read your essay? Do you know this person?
2    Do you agree or disagree with the statement? Give reasons.
3    What is the opposing viewpoint? Try to think of one or two reasons to support it.

b In pairs, decide which of the following statements are T (true) and which are F (false) when writing an opinion essay. Read the theory box and check.

I1I I Decide on your opinion before you start writing.
I2I IWrite in formal style.
I3I IUse present tenses.
I4I IInclude personal examples.
I5I IState your opinion in the first paragraph only.
I6I IUse a variety of linking words.
I7I I State the topic in the introduction.
I8I IWhen presenting a new viewpoint, begin a new paragraph.
I9I I Never include a quotation.
I10I IPresent the opposing viewpoint first.
I11I IBegin each paragraph however you like.
I12I IYou don't have to support every viewpoint with reasons or examples.
I13I IState your opinion again in the conclusion.

Opinion essays

Points to consider:

• Decide on your opinion before you start writing i.e. whether you agree/disagree and how strongly, as this will affect the structure of your essay.

• Use present tenses and formal style, avoiding colloquial expressions, short forms & personal examples.
• Include phrases to express your opinion, a variety of appropriate linking words and interesting techniques to begin/end your essay a quotation, a rhetorical question.

Useful Language:

To express opinion: In my opinion/view, It seems to me that, The way I see it, To my mind, I (strongly/completely) agree/disagree/believe that, I am totally against

To list points: First of all, In the first place, Firstly/Secondly, To start with, To begin with

To add more points: Also, Moreover, Furthermore, In addition, Besides, Apart from this, Another major reason

To introduce contrasting viewpoints: On the other hand, However, It is argued that, Opponents of this view say

To introduce examples: for example/instance, such as, in particular, especially

To conclude: To sum up, In conclusion, All in all, All things considered, Taking everything into account

2 a  Read the essay on p. 55 and number the paragraphs (A- s E) in the correct order (1-5). Listen and check. Which paragraph contains: second viewpoint with reasons/examples? statement of topic and writer's opinion? opposing viewpoint with reasons/examples? the writer's opinion in other words? first viewpoint with reasons/examples?

b What is the writer's opinion? How is it expressed and in which paragraph(s)?

Paragraph structure

3 a Read the main body paragraphs (2-4) in the model essay again. What is the main idea of each paragraph? Which sentence is it in?

| A | | In addition to this, teenagers who have a job earn their own money and this has several advantages. Parents who are perhaps struggling financially, for example, will no longer need to find pocket money for their son or daughter. Furthermore, when teenagers earn their own money, they are usually more careful when deciding how to spend it. In this way, they learn how to handle money responsibly.

|B | | Is it a good idea for teenagers to have part-time jobs while they are still at school? In my view, teenagers who have part-time jobs gain more than just money from their experience. I believe, therefore, that both parents and teachers should encourage teenagers to work part-time.

|C | | To conclude, the way I see it, teenagers learn both refeponsibility and independence through a part-time job. Why not learn some important life lessons at an early age? After all, as they say, "Today's teenagers are tomorrow's adults."

|D | | To start with, getting a job teaches young adults early in life how to become reliable individuals and citizens. An employer expects you to do your job well, and when someone depends on you, you feel a sense of responsibility. Moreover, a part-time job can teach valuable skills essential for your future career, such as learning to be on time, handling money and dealing with customers.

|E | | On the other hand, some people argue that it's unwise for teenagers to work while still studying. In particular, they fear that having a job can take up too much time and cause a student's school work to suffer seriously.

b Complete the table for the model essay. Compare with your partner.

   viewpoint/main idea     reasons/examples
   A job teaches you how to become reliable individuals and citizens   
  When someone depends on you, you learn responsibility...

4 Find all the linking words/phrases in the essay in Ex. 2. Which: list/add a point? Introduce an example/reason? introduce an opposing viewpoint? conclude? Suggest suitable alternatives.

5  Work in pairs. Suggest suitable supporting sentences for the topic sentences below. Include appropriate linking words/ phrases.

1    Firstly, helping to look after younger siblings develops a teenager's character.
2    In addition, laws are essential because they protect people.

First & last paragraph techniques First paragraph techniques:

Your first paragraph must attract and maintain your reader's interest. You can achieve this by:

•    addressing the reader directly, Have you ever wondered what the world would be like if there were no laws?

•    using a quotation/saying/direct speech As the saying goes, 'All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy'.

Last paragraph techniques:

As well as summarising and restating your opinion, a final paragraph may:

•    give the reader something to consider, The world would be a much more dangerous place if there weren't any laws.

•    end with a saying/quotation As Ann Sanders once said, "The hard way is the right way." Or a rhetorical question Aren't teenagers part of society, after all?

6  a Read the theory box. Say which of the paragraphs below are introductions and which are conclusions. Which of the techniques do they use? Which has the writer used in the model essay in Ex. 2?

A  All things considered, I strongly believe that parents have a huge influence on the behaviour of a teenager. As the saying goes, 'The apple doesn't fall far from the tree."

B  When was the last time you did something to protect the environment? I strongly believe that we all have a responsibility to look after our planet. As Marshall Mcluhan said, "There are no passengers on Spaceship Earth; we are all crew "

C   To sum up, whilst many teenagers are not very politically-minded, I believe that teenagers should be allowed to vote if they want to. After all, don't they represent the next generation of adults?

мама и ребенок

b  In pairs, write a suitable introduction and conclusion for the essay title below, using appropriate techniques and expressing your opinion. Compare with another pair.

> All teenagers should help to look after younger siblings.

7 Read the study skill, then express viewpoints ; 1-4 below using milder language.


Expressing your viewpoints
Don't use strong personal expressions e.g. I know, I'm sure/certain that etc. or over-generalisations e.g. All teenagers are irresponsible to express their viewpoints/opinions. Use milder language instead e.g. In my view, It seems to me that, In my opinion/view, I tend to believe, I feel, Teenagers can/have a tendency to be irresponsible etc. This will make your essay more balanced.

1    I am sure that teenagers should help out at home.
2    Teenagers definitely shouldn't have part-time jobs.
3    Teenagers' schoolwork will suffer if they get a part-time job.
4    All video games should be banned.

Discuss and Write

8  a Read the rubrics and underline the key words. Ij What do you have to write about in each case? What is your opinion? Give reasons.

A   A magazine is asking for opinions on the following: All teenagers should help with household chores. Write an essay, giving reasons/examples to support your point of view.

B  You have had a class discussion about the following: Is it a good idea for a child to look after a pet from a young age? Now your teacher would like you to write an essay, stating your opinion and giving reasons/examples. (120-180 words)

b  Work in pairs. Think about rubric A again and match the possible viewpoints (1-3) with the reasons (A-C). What is the writer's opinion? Add more reasons/examples to the viewpoints where possible, and suggest one more viewpoint of your own with reasons/examples. Finally, suggest a suitable way to begin/end this essay.


C Now think about rubric B. Decide on your opinion and make a similar table of possible viewpoints with reasons/examples. How could you begin/end the essay?
9  Use your answers to Ex. 8 to help you write one of the essays. Then, swap with your partner and check each other's work according to the checklist below.

Checklist for opinion essays

•    Is the essay written in an appropriate style?
•    Does the introduction attract your interest, present the theme clearly and give the writer's opinion?
•    Does each paragraph have a topic sentence introducing a separate viewpoint?
•    Is each topic sentence followed by clear reasons/examples to support it?
•    Are all viewpoints expressed using mild language?
•    Are appropriate linking words/phrases used throughout the essay?
•    Does the final main body paragraph present the opposing viewpoint?
•    Is the conclusion interesting and does it restate the writer's opinion?

Английский язык. 11 класс : учеб. для общеобразоват. учреждений / [О.В. Афанасьева, Дж.Дули, И.В. Михеева и др.]. - 2-е изд., доп. и перераб. - М.: Express Publishing : Просвещение, 2009. - 244 с. : ил. - (Английский в фокусе).

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