Grammar reference section 10 - класс

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Grammar reference section

1 Articles

1.1 a / an (indefinite article)

Used with singular countable nouns, e.g. a cat; a girl; an office.

Used when we don't need to refer to something or someone definite, or when something / someone is mentioned for the first time:

I've had a brilliant idea. (first mention)
She's engaged to a footballer. (not a particular footballer)

Used after the verb 'to be':

He's a clever guy,
It's a problem.

Can be used when we refer to something in general:

A television is no longer regarded as a luxury item.
An elephant never forgets.

Remember:The plural of a / an is expressed by some / any or the zero article:

There are some books on the floor.
Have you got any American friends?
Dogs make good pets. (= dogs In general)

1.2 the (definite article)

Used when speaker and listener or reader and writer both know who or what is referred to:

I left the key on the table. (both speaker and listener know which key is meant)
Last year we went to Greece, It was the best holiday we've ever had. ('the holiday' refers directly to the trip to Greece.)
I'll give you back the money I borrowed. (the speaker tells the listener which money he means)

Used when the person or thing referred to is unique (in a particular context):

the sun, the Queen (in Britain!), the police What's the time?

Used with superlative adjectives and with 'first', 'last':

The longest river in the world,
The eldest brother.
The first man to walk on the moon.

Can be used to refer to something in general:

The tiger is in danger of extinction.
She plays the violin.

He loves living by the sea.
The French are famous for their love of good food.
(= French people in general)
I don't go to the opera very often.

1.3 zero article (= no article)

With indefinite plurals:

Bananas are a good source of energy. (= bananas in general)
A lot of teenagers enjoy computer games.

With uncountable singular nouns, to express a general idea:

Time is money.
Chemistry is a difficult subject.
Society is changing qUIckly.
2 Continuous (progressive) forms with 'always'

These forms express the idea of 'very often' or 'too often':

He's always losing his pen.
We were always eating sweets when we were kids,
I'm always making that mistake.

Compare: 'always' plus simple verb forms, to express routines or planned actions:

We always go to Cyprus for our holidays, (= every year)
We always have roast beef on Sundays, (= regularly)

3 Ways of asking for and giving permission:
can / could / may / be allowed to

3.1 Asking for permission

'May' is more formal than 'can' or 'could':

May I borrow your pen? Yes, you may,
Can I borrow your pen? No, you can't.

'Could' is often used if the speaker is more uncertain about the response:

Could we go home earlier today?

'Be allowed (to)' is often used when the speaker is asking for information about rules and regulations:

Are we allowed to use a dictionary in the exam?
Is picnicking allowed here?

3.2 Giving permission

. Here, too, 'may' is more formal than 'can', and 'be allowed (to)' is used for giving information:

You may sit down now. (speaker gives permission)
You can eat as much as you like. (speaker gives permission)
Smoking is not allowed here. (regulation)

Remember: 'Could' is not usually used to give permission.
4 Expressing obligation: must / have (got) to / should / ought to

4.1 'Must' is usually used when the obligation is imposed by the speaker:

You really must work harder.
I must remember to pay the electricity bill.
You must come to dinner on Sunday.

4.2 'Have (got) to' is usually used when the obligation is external:

I've got to be home by 10 o'clock. (my parents insist)
You have to get a visa to visit America. (a regulation)

Remember: 'have got to' is more informal than 'have to',

4.3 'Must' is used only with present or future meaning. 'Had to' is used to express obligations in the past:

I had to leave early so I didn't see the end of the show.
My teacher told me I had to do more homework.

Remember: 'have got to' is not usually used in the past.

4.4 In the negative, 'have to' (not 'must') is used to express absence of obligation:

You don't have to finish your dinner if you're not hungry.
5 Expressing possibility: may / might / could

5.1 'May' is usually more certain than 'might' or 'could':

It may rain tomorrow.
You might be right but I'm not sure.
This could be an important decision for you.
We might have taken the wrong road.
Why isn't John here? He may have missed his train.

Remember: possibility can also be expressed by an adverb.

Perhaps he'll come later.

6 Expressing habits, states and routines in the present and past

6.1 The present simple is often used to express habits and routines:

He goes to the gym twice a week.

This notion is expressed by 'used to' in the past:

We used to play tennis regularly. (but now we don't)
They used to live in Liverpool.
6.2 'Will' can be used to express a habit or a habitual state in the present:

Boys will be boys.

6.3 'Would' and 'used to' can be used to express a routine within a particular period in the past:

When I was very small, my mother would always read me a story at bedtime.
When we arrived at school we would all meet in the playground.
On our last holiday we used to (would) get up early every morning to go swimming.
Remember: 'would' cannot be used without a clear time reference, It is not normally used to refer to a state:

As children, we used to be well behaved. ('would' is not possible here)

6.4 The question and negative forms of 'used to' are rarely used as they are awkward. The negative is often expressed by 'never used to... ':

He never used to complain about hard work.

7 The passive

7.1 The passive is formed with a part of the verb 'to be' plus V-ed (past participle):

The house has been painted.
My car is being repaired.
Our window was broken yesterday.
Tickets for the play can be collected from the theatre.

7.2 The passive is often used instead of the active in the following cases:

when the agent (= the doer of an action) in unknown:

My bicycle has been stolen.

When the result of an action is more important than the agent:

The water was boiled to purify it.
Hundreds of houses were damaged in the storm last weekend.

To emphasise the agent:

'Hamlet' was written by Shakespeare, not Milton.

To describe processes:

After milk has been collected, it is usually pasteurised to kill off harmful bacteria.

To preserve anonymity, e,g. in reports:

It is believed that he is responsible for a number of crimes, (the reporter does not wish to reveal who believes this)

Remember: In general, the passive is more frequent in written English than in spoken English.

8 Conditional sentences

There are many different ways of expressing conditions, but there are four main types of conditional sentences.

8.1 If + present + present simple, to express a general condition (when there is a predictable consequence of an action):

If water is heated to 100oC, it boils.
8.2 If / unless + present simple + will + infinitive, referring to an open possibility:

If you come this evening, I'll make dinner for you.
You won't pass the exam unless you work harder.

8.3 If + simple past form + would + infinitive, referring to a hypothetical situation or a possibility:

If I were you, I'd take a holiday.
If you listened more carefully, you wouldn't make so many mistakes.
What would you do if you had a million roubles?

Though the past form is used, the meaning here refers to the present or the future.

8.4 If + past perfect + would have + V-ed (past participle) to express 'unreal' conditions in the past:

You'd have liked the film if you'd seen it. (but you didn't)
If I had passed the examination, I would have gone to the university. (but I didn't)

9 Reporting speech

We can report someone's words in two main ways:

9.1 By using direct speech:

He said, "I'm sure you are right, "
Direct speech is used when we want to give the exact words of the speaker.
9.2 By using indirect (or reported) speech:

She told me she was feeling ill.
The Prime Minister promised he would look more closely at the problems in the health service.
Indirect or reported speech may be used for a number of reasons:

To summarize the speaker's original words
To interpret the speaker's original words:

He warned his neighbour to keep his dog under control, (the choice of the reporting verb 'warn' expresses the speaker's attitude)

To distance the writer from the words he is reporting:

According to a government spokesman, there is to be a public enquiry into the problem. (the writer wants to make it clear that this is an official statement, not his own opinion)

9.3 The changes we have to make when reporting speech

The changes we have to make when reporting speech are all quite logical. Suppose the Pnme Minister says today, "The government will put more money into hospitals this year." Reporting his words tomorrow, we might write: "The Prime Minister promised yesterday that the government would put more money into hospItals this year."
The reporting verb ('promised') is chosen to interpret the force of the Prime Minister's words The original 'will' is changed to 'would' to follow on from the simple past reporting verb ('promised').

The word 'yesterday' is added to fix the time, but 'this year' remains unchanged when the report is written.

Words referring to place and time may have to be changed if the report is written or spoken at a different time and in a different plaee trom the one where the speaker originally spoke.


1) Patient: "m feeling sick,
Doctor: What did you say?
Patient: I saId I'm feeling sick, (she is still feeling sick a moment later)

2) (half an hour later, in another room)
Nurse: How's the patient?
Doctor: She saId she was feeling sick.

The distance in place and time causes the doctor to choose the past form of the verb here. Writing a report after a conversation and in a different place may require changes in adverbs / adverbial expressions of place and time. Here are some examples:

Words the speaker uses                                     Words the reporter uses

here                                                ->                                      there
now                                                 ->                                      then
today                                               ->                                      that day / yesterday
yesterday                                         ->                                      the day before
this                                                  ->                                      that
my father                                          ->                                      his / her father
next week                                        ->                                       the following week
tomorrow                                          ->                                       the day after

9.4 Reporting Questions. Here are some common ways of reporting questions:

Where are you going?" ->  He asked me where I was going.
"Do you live here?" ->  He asked her if she lived there.
"Why did you arrive late?" ->  She wanted to know why I had arrived late.


1) The word order in the reported questions changes, It is the same as in a statement.
2) The auxiliary 'do' is not used in the reported question.
3) There is no questIon mark in the reported question.

9.5 Common reporting verbs

These verbs often express the attitude or intentIon of the speaker:

1)  tell             He told me to sit down.
                           She told me that she loved me.
2) advise         She advised her daughter to take care.

3) warn           The policeman warned the driver to slow down.
4) promise     I promised to reply to her letter.
She promised that we would meet again soon.
5) ask               My friend asked me to help her on Saturday.

6) offer           She offered to look after my garden.
7) threaten    They threatened to report their neighbours to the police.
8) say                I said (that) I would come.
9) suggest       He suggested (that) I should take a holiday.
10)insist          My mother insisted (that) I should stay at home.

'say', 'suggest' and 'insist' are normally followed by a 'that' clause. All the other verbs can be followed by an infinitive or (in some cases) a 'that' clause.

O. Л. Гроза, О. Б. Дворецкая, Н. Ю. Казырбаева, В. В. Клименко, М. Л. Мичурина, Н. В. Новикова, Т. Н. Рыжкова, Е. Ю. Шалимова, Английский язык нового тысячелентия, Учебник английского языка для 10 класса общеобразовательных учреждений. — 2-е изд. — М. Титул, 2004. — 175 с, ; ил.

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