What does @ mean? Grammar Артикль

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What does @ mean

Употребление артиклей перед существительными с обобщающим значением

Когда мы говорим о предмете как о представителе целого класса предметов, то артикль употребляется по следующим правилам:
1. Перед исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе употребляется артикль the. Например:
The giraffe is the tallest animal on our planet. — Жираф — самое высокое животное на нашей планете.

2.    Перед исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе артикль не употребляется. Например:
She likes roses. — Она любит розы.

3.    Перед неисчисляемыми существительными артикль не употребляется. Например:
I like coffee. — Я люблю кофе.

4.    С существительными во множественном числе, обозначающими национальность, употребляется артикль the. Например:
The English drink a lot of tea. — Англичане пьют много чая.

1 Choose the correct article.

1.    Who invented — / the computer?
2.    Are — / the tigers stronger than — / the lions?
3.    Are — / the tulips as beautiful as — / the mayflowers?
4.    He usually has — / the milk for breakfast, but his sister has — / the coffee.
5.    Are — / the Americans as friendly as — / the Russians?
2 Look at the pictures. Answer the questions.

1.    Which of these things can you call a means of communication?
2.    How can you use them to communicate?
3.    Which of these means of communication do you take for granted?
4.    Which of them are new or interesting for you?


3 Listen to the speaker and check one of your answers. Answer the questions.

1.    Can flowers be a means of communication?
2.    What does the lily mean?
3.    What does the yellow carnation (гвоздика) mean?


4 Read about the history of communication and answer the questions.

1.    What did people do to tell other generations about their culture when they didn't have the alphabet?
2.    What did people do to send their letters when they didn't have post offices?
3.    What did people do to send quick messages when they didn't have the telephone and the telegraph?

Nowadays we take our modern means of communication for granted, but we shouldn't forget older methods. Who knows? One day we may need them again!
The history of communication started long before people invented the alphabet. When people couldn't read or write, they drew pictures on the walls. These pictures told the stories of their everyday life, battles and culture.
Can you imagine your life without post offices? Difficult, isn't it. But before they were invented, people still wrote letters.
In the ancient world there were thousands of foot messengers who formed an ancient communication network. One of the most famous messengers in history was a Greek soldier. He ran to Athens to bring the news of the Greek victory over the Persians at the battle of Marathon in 490 ВС.
When he got to Athens and gave the news, he fell dead of exhaustion (истощение). He had covered a distance of 26 miles. In honour of this soldier, sportsmen nowadays run the same distance — a marathon.
In the Middle Ages life was hard and dangerous. It was very important to have good neighbours and to get news quickly. So people used the high towers of their castles to send and receive messages about the enemies. American Indians didn't build high towers but used smoke signals to send important information.
When Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876, everybody thought that it was a real miracle (чудо). The
telephone and the telegraph were the fastest means of communication that people could imagine. In the 19th century people used to say, "We have invented everything we could." But as we know today it was just the beginning.

5    Mark these sentences true, false or not stated.

1.    People couldn't communicate before they invented the alphabet.
2.    In the ancient world people also had big, fast communication networks.
3.    Marathon is the name of a place in ancient Greece.
4.    In medieval times people used the telegraph.
5.    The American Indians used smoke signals because they couldn't read or write.
6.    People invented the post in the 19th century.
7.    Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.
8.    In the 19th century people used Morse code for the telegraph.

6    In groups. What did people invent in the 20th and 21 st centuries? What is the fastest means of communication today?

7    Quiz. Discuss the questions and try to choose the correct answers.

1.    Who invented paper?
a) the Chinese b) the Japanese c) the English

2.    Who invented the alphabet?
a) the Jews (евреи) b) the Greeks c) the Egyptians

3.    Who invented ink?
a) the Egyptians and the Chinese b) the Chinese c) the Arabs

4.    Who first sent private letters from one person to another?
a) the Greeks b) the Egyptians c) the Romans

5.    Who invented the stamp?
a) the English b) the Russians c) the Americans

6.    Who invented the telephone?
a) Telephone b) Popov c) Alexander Graham Bell

7.    Who invented the telegraph?
a) Alexander Graham Bell b) Samuel Morse c) Mary Telegraph

8.    Who invented the e-mail?
a) the Americans b) the Russians c) the Germans


A If you want to know the correct answers to the quiz and what @ means, read the texts "Ink", "Alphabet", "Means of writing", "Paper", "Penny Black", "Telegraph", "Telephone", "E-mail" in the Workbook.

К. И. Кауфман, М. Ю. Кауфман Английский язык: Счастливый английский.ру / Happy Учебник англ. яз. для 8 кл. общеобраз. учрежд.— Обнинск: Титул, 2008.— 288 с: ил.

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